Allergic diseases - treatment in Russia
Allergic diseases are a group of diseases caused by an individual’s hypersensitivity to certain foreign substances – allergens and occurring with the development of an IgE-mediated reaction of the immune system. The prerequisites for the occurrence of allergies are high specificity (reaction strictly to certain antigens), sensitization (hypersensitivity to this allergen) and repeated exposure of the body to the allergen.
The ethological classification of allergic diseases is based on the isolation of a causally significant allergen; within the framework of it, food, household, insect, drug, infectious allergies are differentiated. According to the method of penetration into the body, aeroallergens, contact, oral, injection allergens are distinguished. Taking into account the conditions in which the allergic reaction has developed, household, professional, seasonal allergies are distinguished. Depending on the primary lesion of a particular organ system, the following groups of allergic diseases are distinguished: allergic dermatoses (atopic dermatitis, eczema, urticaria, etc.), intestinal allergies (allergic enterocolitis), respiratory (allergic rhinitis, allergic tracheobronchitis, bronchial asthma), acute allergic reactions (angioedema, anaphylactic shock).
Symptoms of various allergic diseases are due to common pathogenetic mechanisms: the release of mast cell mediators and basophils into the tissues or into the blood, which cause characteristic vascular and smooth muscle reactions: edema, hyperemia, itching, hypotension, difficulty breathing. In this case, the specific form of allergy depends on the organ or tissue in which the allergen comes into contact with immunoglobulin E, which is fixed on the cell surface. If this happens in the respiratory tract, a clinic of allergic rhinitis or bronchial asthma may develop, in the conjunctiva of the eye – allergic conjunctivitis, in the superficial layers of the dermis – urticaria, in the subcutaneous tissue – Quincke’s edema, etc. Since allergic diseases have extremely diverse manifestations, in In their work, allergists are in close contact with dermatologists, pulmonologists, otolaryngologists, gastroenterologists, ophthalmologists, nutritionists and doctors of other specialties.
Specific diagnostics of allergic diseases consists in collecting an allergic anamnesis, conducting allergy testing (allergy tests and provocative tests), determining general and allergen-specific IgE, and, if necessary, performing functional studies (spirometry with samples, peak flowmetry). After identifying the causative allergen, it is necessary to take immediate measures to eliminate it, that is, to completely exclude contact with a substance that provokes an allergic disease. To this end, it may be necessary to change food habits, refuse to use certain cosmetics, get rid of upholstered furniture and carpets in the house, stop taking certain medications, change the field of professional activity, etc. Modern principles of treatment of allergic diseases provide for specific hyposensitization (ASIT) by introducing allergens into the body in gradually increasing doses. After a full course of ASIT, stable remission can be achieved in 70-80% of cases. For non-specific therapy of allergic diseases, various groups of drugs are used: antihistamines, cromones, corticosteroids, bronchodilators, etc. Acupuncture, climatotherapy, homeopathy, herbal medicine are used from non-drug methods.
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