Speech disorders - treatment in Russia
Speech disorders are various disorders of speech activity that interfere with full-fledged speech communication and social interaction. Speech disorders are spoken of if there are deviations in the functioning of the psychophysiological mechanisms of speech; inconsistency of the level of speech development with the age norm; speech deficiencies are not overcome on their own and can negatively affect the mental development of the individual. The study and overcoming of speech impairment in children and adults is engaged in pedagogical science – speech therapy, as well as friendly sciences of the medical cycle (neurophysiology, neurology, otolaryngology, dentistry, etc.).
Modern classifications consider speech disorders from the standpoint of etiopathogenesis (clinical and pedagogical classification) and in the aspect of disorders of the psychophysical organization of speech activity (psychological and pedagogical classification).
Thus, the clinical and pedagogical classification includes violations of written speech (dyslexia and alexia, dysgraphia and agraphia) and disorders of oral speech, which are divided into disorders of phonation (external) speech design (dyslalia, dysarthria, rhinolalia, bradilalia, tachyllalia, stuttering, voice disorders ) and disorders of the structural and semantic (internal) formulation of the utterance (alalia and aphasia).
The psychological and pedagogical classification distinguishes violations of the language components of speech (FFN and OHR), as well as violations in the use of language means (stuttering, mutism). Complex combined defects (FFN + stuttering, OHP + stuttering) are possible.
All the variety of reasons causing impaired development of speech can be divided into biological and social. Thus, biological factors that cause speech disorders can act at different periods of ontogenesis. At the stage of intrauterine development and childbirth, the most adverse effect on the maturation and subsequent functioning of the child’s brain structures is fetal hypoxia, intrauterine infections, birth trauma, etc.; in the first months after birth – injuries, brain infections. Speech disorders in older people are usually associated with vascular lesions of the brain (stroke, ruptured cerebral aneurysm), severe head injuries, brain tumors, neurosurgical interventions.
Socio-psychological factors leading to impaired speech development in children can be expressed in the lack of proper attention to the formation of children’s speech on the part of adults; incorrect speech of others; the need for a preschooler to master two language systems at the same time; excessive stimulation of the child’s speech development that does not correspond to the age-related capabilities, stress, etc.
Predisposing conditions for the occurrence of speech disorders in children are the so-called critical periods in the development of speech function: 1-2 years, 3 years and 6-7 years. These periods are sensitive for the development of speech: at this time, the most intensive formation of the psychophysiological basis of speech occurs, and the nervous mechanisms of regulation of speech activity are extremely vulnerable. Therefore, any, even seemingly insignificant biological or social factors acting in critical periods, can lead to the occurrence of speech disorders.
Speech disorders are persistent and, having arisen under the influence of one factor or another, do not disappear on their own, without specially organized speech therapy assistance. In addition, speech disorders negatively affect the development of the intellectual sphere, behavior and personality in general. At the same time, in most cases, speech disorders are reversible, and purposeful and timely correction made allows the person to return the joy of communication and prevent the development of secondary mental layers.
Speech therapy assistance to persons suffering from speech disorders is provided in the education system (specialized preschool educational institutions, speech therapy groups, speech therapy centers, schools for children with severe speech impairments, etc.), in the health care system (speech therapy rooms at polyclinics, dispensaries, hospitals, specialized medical centers , children’s homes, etc.), private development centers. In these institutions, speech therapists conduct consultations, a comprehensive diagnostic examination and correction of speech disorders.
The course of speech therapy classes is conducted according to a special program in accordance with the specifics of speech disorders. In the classroom for the correction of speech disorders, speech exercises, articulatory and breathing exercises, speech therapy massage, logo rhythmics are used. Speech therapy for speech disorders is actively combined with drug therapy, psychotherapy, massage, physiotherapy, exercise therapy, and, if necessary, surgery.
Prevention of speech disorders begins in fact from the moment of the birth of a new life and continues after birth, throughout life. It includes taking care of the favorable course of pregnancy, the neuropsychic and physical health of pregnant women and children, early identification of risk factors for speech disorders and their elimination. Speech environment is of paramount importance in the prevention of speech disorders in children.
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