Oncological diseases - treatment in Russia
Oncological diseases include tumor processes of various localization and histological structure. In a broad sense, they combine benign and malignant neoplasms, but practical oncology specializes mainly in the treatment of malignant tumors. Currently, oncological diseases are significantly “rejuvenated” and are truly epidemic in nature, therefore, the search for ways to prevent them, early detection and treatment is an urgent interdisciplinary problem. To solve it, narrow areas are distinguished within individual medical specialties – oncogynecology, oncourology, oncodermatology, onco-ophthalmology, neuro-oncology, etc.
There are many forms of tumors that differ in localization, cell structure, degree of aggressiveness, characteristics of the course and prognosis, and a number of other factors. In oncology, tumors are usually divided into benign, conditionally benign (borderline) and malignant. Benign neoplasms are characterized by relatively slow growth, no tendency to metastasis, and a good prognosis. These types of tumors include fibromas, lipomas, nevi, papillomas, leiomyomas, neuromas, chondromas, angiomas, and many others. dr.
Conditionally benign tumors also do not metastasize, however, they have the ability to degenerate into cancerous and recurrent after removal. Examples of such oncological diseases are adenomatous polyps of the stomach, atypical moles, cutaneous horn, senile keratosis, Bowen’s disease, etc. Malignant tumors are characterized by invasive growth, invasion of surrounding tissues, metastasis, recurrence. These types of tumors include cancer (carcinoma), sarcoma, lymphoma.
Every year in the world, oncopathology is diagnosed in about 10 million people, and 8 million patients die from some form of cancer. According to the WHO, the “rating” of the most common oncological diseases is as follows. Thus, the most common “female” type of cancer is breast cancer; it is closely followed by cervical cancer. The absolute leader among male oncopathology is prostate cancer.
The most frequently diagnosed and deadly types of cancer, regardless of gender, are recognized: lung cancer, colon cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer. Less common causes of death are cancer of the bladder and kidney, pancreas, leukemia, melanoma. Leukemia, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, lymphoma, osteosarcoma, retinoblastoma prevail among oncological diseases of childhood.
Today, there are many known reasons leading to the development of malignant tumors. Among them are unfavorable heredity, environmental problems, industrial and household hazards, stress, poor nutrition, unhealthy habits, an inactive lifestyle, viral diseases, etc. At the same time, studies show that about 80% of risk factors are potentially removable, i.e. e most cases of cancer can be prevented. This requires the efforts of not only oncologists, but, above all, of the individual himself.
For the purpose of early detection of oncological diseases, regular preventive medical examinations are offered, periodic medical examinations of a certain contingent of persons are carried out, and comprehensive oncological screening programs for men and women (“onco check-up”) are being developed and implemented. All persons over 40 years of age need to undergo prophylactic oncological examination once every 2 years, and for people with a burdened background – annually. The most frequent studies included in oncological screening are the determination of blood tumor markers (CEA, AFP), ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and kidneys, thyroid gland, fluorography, FGDS, colonoscopy. For women, consultation with a gynecologist, ultrasound of the pelvic organs, colposcopy, cytological smear, determination of CA 15-3 and CA-125, mammography are required; for men – consultation with a urologist, determination of PSA and ultrasound of the prostate.
The study of oncological diseases in developed countries today is one of the priority areas of medicine, and significant progress has been achieved in this direction. Along with traditional methods of treatment of oncological diseases (surgical removal of tumors and metastases, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy), effective methods of physical impact on tumor tissue are used (cryoablation, laser therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound, hyperthermia, etc.). A promising trend in oncology is cancer immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies, antitumor vaccines, activated T-lymphocytes, etc. etc.
Each patient should remember that cancer is not a sentence, and in the early stages, most tumors can be completely cured.
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